Publish What You Pay created a value chain for how we can instill transparency and accountability throughout the extractive process, from discovery of natural resources to wrapping up the project. You can view our chain here.
But did our value chain take enough into account gender issues? At a workshop with UN women last March we brainstormed a value chain that takes into account how women are differently affected by the extractive sector. The result is below.
We’d like to work on this chain a bit more, which is why we’ve organised an e-discussion to take place in the comments section below, next Thursday 18th July at 9:00 am BST to chat about anything we might have missed. We’ve got PWYP members from Africa to Asia-Pacific participating, as well as staff from UN Women.
Join us and tell us what you think!
1) What are our natural resources?
Women, youth and men need full information on their country’s natural resources in order to make informed decisions on whether and how these should be extracted. Geological surveys and other information should be shared with a special attention on making sure women are reached. Communication methods should take into account literacy levels and women’s access to information.
2) What is the natural resource framework?
Influencing natural resource legal frameworks ensures that transparency, accountability and gender sensitivity are included in the natural resource management process from the start. Existing policy frameworks should be gender responsive and harmonised with national gender policies, with cross fertilisation between ministries (i.e mines and gender). Policy frameworks should adhere to international human rights frameworks (Kampala convention for IDPs, CEDAW, the Maputo Protocol, African Charter on Human Rights etc…) and relevant business/investor frameworks (Ruggie, Equator) as well as address land issues. We also need regulation of the artisanal and small-scale mining sector – many women work in this field but it remains unregulated.
Impact assessments (social and environmental) and Free Prior and Informed Consent consultations should be gender responsive in their questions and indicators. They should be carried out in a transparent and independent manner, ensuring a guaranteed level of free and full participation of women.
In cases where there are national debates before extractive decisions, the involvement of women parliamentarians should be especially encouraged.
4) How to ensure the best possible deal?
Licenses and contracts must be awarded in a transparent manner, with public and competitive bidding and contracts available to all women, men and youth . Women (from all sectors) must have a seat at the negotiating table Compensation should be conceived of in terms of loss of livelihood rather than value (e.g loss of farming rather than loss of land/tree) and there should be training and support for women about to engage in new income generating activities .
5) How to monitor the project?
Projects need to be monitored to ensure that any change in circumstance or contractual breach can be rectified. Abuses arising from extraction should be corrected and preventative measures in place. Women must be included in trainings on contract monitoring (and their participation encouraged) and the monitoring itself should have gender responsive indicators. Areas to monitor include the impact of migration patterns on gender and the impact of extractive projects on environment and sexual health, as well as the increased risk of sexual violence. Prevention measures should be put into place and a clear access to justice established.
Companies must publish what they pay so that women, men and youth can find out how much their country receives for natural resources and hold their government to account. Women organisations should be involved and trained in understanding project level data. In the campaigns disseminating data information, civil society must ensure that women are being effectively reached.
7) Did the money reach the state coffers?
To ensure that money is not siphoned off or ‘lost’, governments need to be transparent and report their natural resource revenues. This includes whether the revenues were destined to a certain level of government (i.e 15 % of revenues of a project are allocated to the extractive community) or to a special fund, such as one directed towards to empowerment of women
8) How should the money be spent?
Money should be allocated transparently and equitably. There should be gender transparency, gender responsive budgeting (fair distribution within development priorities), and more women involved in budget prioritisation. Better knowledge is important here, as is disaggregated data and analysis on expenditure and allocation of budgets.
Once revenue is allocated, civil society can monitor whether the money reached its agreed destination and advocate for rectification if the money goes missing en route.
10) Was it worth it?
There should be an independent impact assessment made to evaluate whether the money generatd was correctly spent and contributed to the development and the improvement of the lives of all women, men and youth. To this end, impact assessments should examine indicators that are gender responsive and carried out by a gender balanced number of professionalswho consult a guaranteed percentage of women. Evaluations could be made on the specific impact a certain budget activity had on the lives of women, and whether this was the most effective activity to have prioritised.
11) Always Assess
There should be regular assessments by all parties to ensure that longer-term frameworks are correct and still relevant. This is a good opportunity to rectify old frameworks so that they incorporate the gender dimension.
It is important to consider how an extractive project – and the economy that sprang around it – is effectively dismantled and decommissioned. Gender responsive decommissioning plans should take into account issues including land (who does it go back to once it has been compensated for?) and the livelihoods of women and men – many income generating activities for women will disappear as the mine shuts down.
Women’s participation should be increased at every level and in every activity along the value chain.
The institutions governing natural resources and the extractive sector should be developed to become gender responsive.
Women organisations should be involved at every level of the chain.